Tractors are a type of agricultural, industrial or other self-propelled machines with certain technical characteristics, capabilities, and design differences.
Complete with additional mounted, semi-mounted, and special working equipment, tractors significantly expand the capabilities and functionality of tractors, which turns them into a machine-tractor unit. These units are classified according to a number of characteristics.
Let’s consider the most common and important classifications.
Classification of tractors by function and specific works
According to this criterion, tractors can be divided into 2 large groups: agricultural and industrial.
The classification of agricultural tractors includes the following types of units:
general purpose – to perform a wide range of field work (except harvesting and tillage);
universal – except for ground preparation, they are used for tillage and harvesting;
universal-plough – used for soil preparation, planting, harvesting and processing crops. Not actively used on virgin soils;
specialized – used depending on culture and type of production. Б e are vineyard, horticultural, greenhouse, etc.
Industrial units are divided into:
general purpose – mainly used with dozer blades and a variety of drills;
specialized (loaders, pipelayers, for underground and underwater works, etc.);
timber industry. In turn, they are also divided into skid steer, swamp steer and floating.
Classification by running gear type
The type of undercarriage system are divided into:
Wheeled tractors move with the help of a wheeled mover. In the standard configuration, the units have 4 wheels. The 2 front wheels usually have a smaller diameter and are steerable, the 2 rear wheels have a larger diameter and are driveable. In brief, this wheel arrangement is referred to as 4K2.
Crawler tractors, respectively, are moved with the help of caterpillars. Units with a mixed type of mover are driven simultaneously by wheels and caterpillars.
Classification of tractors according to drawbar class
The traction class of a tractor depends on the machine’s pulling power at full operating weight, which it develops on a surface of average density and moisture.
Tractor classification for environmental friendliness
It is hard to classify the tractor’s environmental class, since there is no strict classification according to this criterion. When choosing a unit from the point of view of environmental friendliness, first of all, be guided by the engine power and the fuel system arrangement. The less power of the power unit – the lower fuel consumption and, accordingly, emissions into the atmosphere. The fuel system of modern tractors in most cases has good fuel and exhaust cleaning systems, so these machines can be considered environmentally friendly.